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Shadowland: Beginnings: Week 50

As this and the next few Chapters begin Israel's sojourn in Egypt, it is worth noticing the parallel in Abraham's sojourn in Egypt in 12:10-20, with Sarai as a type of Israel, Jehovah's wife.

Genesis 43

When did Joseph rule Egypt?

There is no known unambiguous Egyptian record of Joseph, leading skeptics to question whether Joseph was historical. We have an anchor in secular history for the founding of Carthage. (Plus or minus 11 years, since it isn't always clear whether an author means island or mainland Carthage when they date it's founding.) Multiple independent sources all agree on 155 years from Hiram's reign to the founding of Carthage - or on 143 years from the start of Solomon's temple begune in the 12th year of Hiram's reign. 1 Kings 6:1 tells us Solomon began his temple 480 years after the Exodus, giving a generally agreed on date for the Exodus. There is less agreement on which Pharaoh had the plagues (as dating Egyptian artifacts is problematic). Thutmose_II is a candidate, despite being dated a little before 1448, because his is the only mummy to display cysts from boils (and secular scholars don't have the hard date from a reliable document that we do). He also had a prosperous reign, but both his reign and the prosperity suddenly ended with no heir, leaving his queen Hatshepsut as pharaoh. Note that Pharaoh Ramesses named in the "Ten Commandments" movie is almost certainly not the pharaoh of the Exodus. I depart from secular history at this point in also giving a hard date to Joseph, as Genesis 15:13 tells us Israel was in Egypt 400 years (but it's not actually that simple - see next lesson). That puts Joseph within the 12th or 14th dynasty. The 12th and 13th dynasties still ruled the south of Egypt, but the eastern delta region (including Goshen) was ruled by the 14th dynasty, a Caananite dynasty. The gaps in the knowledge of the 14th dynasty of Egypt are such that its absolute chronological position is debated and varies by as much as 75 years among authorities.

Egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposes that the 14th dynasty emerged during the late 12th dynasty, c. 1805 BC, during or shortly after Sobekneferu's rule. He contends that the local Canaanite population residing in the eastern Delta declared its independence and staved off possible attempts from the 13th dynasty Memphite kings to recover the Delta. According to Ryholt, the 14th dynasty thus lasted from 1805 BC until its demise under the Hyksos 15th dynasty.